The Virtual Soldier Research program was established by Professor Karim Abdel-Malek in 2003. A research unit within the Center for Computer-Aided Design at the University of Iowa, VSR conducts both basic and applied research in the field of human modeling and simulation. VSR is a world leader in the study of human simulation, particularly with the creation of a digital human called Santos™, as a comprehensive simulation environment. VSR has been very successful in attracting research funding from the US military and industrial partners such as Caterpillar, Ford, GM, Chrysler, and many others, which has led to unique and powerful capabilities for human simulation.